In September, The Economic Standard published a report on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) that was republished, translated and covered in countries all around the world. This is the second version of the report, updated to include new information on safety, efficacy, and two more problematic randomized controlled trials. It demonstrates through meticulously sourced analysis:

1) HCQ is a safe, versatile medicine that has treated hundreds of millions of people for many diseases over seven decades.

2) Numerous controlled observational studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated that HCQ can help people with COVID-19.

3) Hundreds of drugs have been approved by the U.S. FDA on the basis of similar observational studies, especially when conducted in large numbers and subject to meta-analysis.

4) As a matter of medical practice and especially in a pandemic emergency, it is not the case that only randomized controlled trials can justify adopting a treatment.

5) HCQ should be more widely recommended, prescribed and promoted to treat COVID-19 right now.

Our goal is to advance debate about public policy. This paper was produced without financial support or ethical conflicts of any kind, in close collaboration with practicing physicians and infectious disease specialists from across the U.S. and around the world. We are extremely grateful for their help in ensuring the accuracy of our analysis. Any mistakes are ours alone.

Erik Sass
The Economic Standard